Tag

analyse

Browsing

We slept in what had once been the gymnasium. The floor was of varnished wood, with stripes and circles painted on it, for the games that were formerly played there; the hoops for the basketball nets were still in place, though the nets were gone. A balcony ran around the room, for the spectators, and I thought I could smell, faintly like an afterimage, the pungent scent of sweat, shot through with the sweet taint of chewing gum and perfume from the watching girls, felt-skirted as I knew from pictures, later in miniskirts, then pants, then in one earring, spiky green-streaked hair. Dances would have been held there; the music lingered, a palimpsest of unheard sound, style upon style, an undercurrent of drums, a forlorn wail, garlands made of tissue-paper flowers, cardboard devils, a revolving ball of mirrors, powdering the dancers with a snow of light.

There was old sex in the room and loneliness, and expectation, of something without a shape or name. I remember that yearning, for something that was always about to happen and was never the same as the hands that were on us there and then, in the small of the back, or out back, in the parking lot, or in the television room with the sound turned down and only the pictures flickering over lifting flesh.

We yearned for the future. How did we learn it, that talent for insatiability? It was in the air; and it was still in the air, an afterthought, as we tried to sleep, in the army cots that had been set up in rows, with spaces between so we could not talk. We had flannelette sheets, like children’s, and army-issue blankets, old ones that still said U.S. We folded our clothes neatly and laid them on the stools at the ends of the beds. The lights were turned down but not out. Aunt Sara and Aunt Elizabeth patrolled; they had electric cattle prods slung on thongs from their leather belts.

No guns though, even they could not be trusted with guns. Guns were for the guards, specially picked from the Angels. The guards weren’t allowed inside the building except when called, and we weren’t allowed out, except for our walks, twice daily, two by two around the football field, which was enclosed now by a chain-link fence topped with barbed wire. The Angels stood outside it with their backs to us. They were objects of fear to us, but of something else as well. If only they would look. If only we could talk to them. Something could be exchanged, we thought, some deal made, some tradeoff, we still had our bodies. That was our fantasy.

We learned to whisper almost without sound. In the semidarkness we could stretch out our arms, when the Aunts weren’t looking, and touch each other’s hands across space. We learned to lip-read, our heads flat on the beds, turned sideways, watching each other’s mouths. In this way we exchanged names, from bed to bed:

Alma. Janine. Dolores. Moira. June.

The Handmaid’s Tale, chapter 1.

Setting and Time: a universe of temporal and spatial signs

Contextualisation: space

Semantic fields are understood universally. The gymnasium is a call to universal memory, to the experience of every reader, it’s a cultural sign.

It is reassuring but there are many syntactic breaks: “once”, “formerly”, “though” that show an insistence on the way recognizable signs are manipulated so that they gradually become revised, unrecognizable, and subverted signs.

Sport places (which used to be places of fun, pleasure and bodily activity) are now turned into dormitories (1: “We slept in what had once been the gymnasium.”) or prison yards (31: “the football field which was enclosed now (…) barbed wire.”)

Durkheim a donné une image harmonieuse de l’organisation sociale. Ce qu’il privilégie, c’est la stabilité qu’entraîne la solidarité. La source des conflits vient de la nature des liens sociaux. Le conflit est le résultat d’un manque : l’anomie.

Marx, Dahrendorf et Touraine insistent sur le rôle du conflit en tant que moteur du changement social. Le point de départ de cette analyse est bien sûr l’analyse marxiste. On peut alors se demander si l’analyse marxiste du conflit est toujours d’actualité.

I – La notion de conflit

A – Qu’est-ce qu’un conflit ?

Le conflit général met en présence 2 acteurs (individus ou groupes) aux intérêts divergents. Le conflit social a des enjeux politiques, économiques et sociaux.

Le conflit du travail reprend ces 3 enjeux, cependant les acteurs appartiennent à la même unité de production. Il a un caractère légal : c’est la défense collective des intérêts individuels. L’enjeu du conflit peut être interne à l’entreprise ou se répercuter au niveau de la collectivité (réaction en chaîne comme en mai 1968).

La forme la plus fréquente du conflit est la grève, qui a un caractère légal. C’est le meilleur moyen de pression. La manifestation sur la place publique est le moyen traditionnel de prolonger le conflit ( car très médiatisée).

Les conflits de classes (cf. Marx et la lutte des classe) sont différents des conflits sociaux qui sont des oppositions entre groupes sociaux.

B – Le conflit peut être facteur de changement social

Le changement social est la transformation durable de l’ensemble ou d’une partie du système social dans son organisation, dans sa structure et dans ses modèles culturels.

Le changement social est caractérisé par les transformations sociales importantes de la société (les congés payés en 1936 par exemple). Le conflit est créateur : il pousse les acteurs à inventer de nouvelles formes sociales.

Le conflit social a une action dynamique sur l’organisation sociale qui l’oblige à évoluer. Le conflit a une fonction d’intégration des acteurs sociaux car il se déroule au nom d’objectifs communs.

Selon Simmer (1858-1918), le conflit remplit 2 fonctions :

  • il révèle les antagonismes sociaux
  • il permet de reconstruire l’unité de la société en suscitant des transformations

Selon Marx, le changement social passe par la lutte des classes, qui est le moteur de l’histoire. Chaque société est supposée connaître une succession d’étapes, chacune se caractérisant par un mode de production spécifique mais qui dans tous les cas de figure est à l’origine d’une césure entre dominants et dominés.

Cette opposition conduit à la lutte, le système éclate lorsqu’elle devient exacerbée. Dans le cadre des sociétés capitalistes, la lutte découle de la confrontation entre la bourgeoisie seule détentrice des moyens de production et le prolétariat, détenteur de sa seule force de travail.