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Matt est formateur, développeur expert WordPress et WooCommerce, et administrateur réseau chez Codeable.
Activer SSH sous CPanel photo 4

Sur un nouveau serveur à base d’Ubuntu Server 18.04, j’obtiens cette erreur à la suite d’un test du service ssh:

sshd -t

Could not load host key: /etc/ssh/ssh_host_ed25519_key
Missing privilege separation directory: /run/sshd

Les solutions à ces deux problèmes sont triviales, cela se règle en deux petites commandes.

L’erreur Could not load host key

L’erreur Could not load host key survient lorsque certaines clés SSH n’ont pas été générées lors de l’installation du système d’exploitation du serveur.

Dans le cas du serveur qui nous occupe, il nous manque la clé de chiffrement ED25519 qui doit se trouver à l’adresse /etc/ssh/ssh_host_ed25519_key.

Pour générer toutes les clés de chiffrement SSH manquantes, une seule commande suffit:

ssh-keygen -A

L’argument -A signifie que l’on génère toutes les clés (All keys). Voici le résultat sur le serveur:

ssh-keygen: generating new host keys: ED25519

L’erreur Missing privilege separation directory: /run/sshd

Cette erreur apparaît lorsque le répertoire mentionné – ici /run/sshd – n’a pas été correctement créé. Il suffit de le créer:

mkdir -p /run/sshd

Vérifiez la configuration SSH:

sshd -t

S’il n’y a plus d’erreur, vous pouvez alors redémarrer le service ssh:

service ssh restart

Et voilà, problèmes réglés.

Tony Jaa, est un acteur thaï d’arts martiaux et un chorégraphe spécialisé en Kung Fu, Muay Boran et Taekwondo, ainsi que dans le maniement d’épées et en gymnastique.

À 15 ans Tony Jaa devient l’élève de Panna Rittikrai qui dirige une équipe de cascadeurs nommée Muay Thai Stunt. Jaa fait diverses apparitions dans ses films.

Il continue à travailler en tant que cascadeur, apparaissant dans le film Mortal Kombat, destruction finale (Mortal Kombat: Annihilation).

Son premier grand film, dans lequel il tient le rôle principal Ting, fut Ong-bak co-réalisé en 2003 avec Panna Rittikrai. Tony Jaa y effectue toutes les cascades sans assistance technique ou effets spéciaux.

Ensuite, il fera un autre film dont il a le rôle principal: Tom-Yum-Goong (The Protector aux États-Unis). Il déclare avoir été influencé dès sa jeunesse par les stars chinoises de films d’actions : Bruce Lee, Jet Li et Jackie Chan, bien que son style de combat dans Ong-Bak soit fidèle à ses racines thaïlandaises.

Une détente et un style phénoménal!

Auto Draft photo

Le hotlinking (ou liaison automatique ; aussi connu en anglais sous les noms de inline linking, leeching, piggy-backing, direct linking ou offsite image grabs) consiste à utiliser l’adresse d’un fichier publié sur un site web, le plus souvent une image, pour l’afficher sur un autre site, sur un blog, dans un forum, etc.

En d’autres termes, au lieu d’enregistrer l’image et de l’installer sur son propre serveur Web, le hotlinkeur crée un lien direct vers le serveur d’origine.

Sous NginX, il peut être très utile d’éviter que des gens publient vos photos ou images sur votre site, en gardant les liens de votre serveur et en consommant toute votre bande passante.

Il suffit d’éditer votre server block et d’y ajouter cette directive:

location ~ .(gif|png|jpeg|jpg|svg)$ {
     valid_referers none blocked ~.google. ~.bing. ~.yahoo. ~.facebook. ~.pinterest. ~.twitter. yourdomain.com *.yourdomain.com server_names;
     if ($invalid_referer) {
        return   403;
    }
}

N’hésitez pas à rajouter les domaines que vous souhaitez whitelister et qui sont autorisés à utiliser vos fichiers média.

Relancez ensuite NginX avec:

service nginx restart

Cela devrait quelque peu soulager votre serveur et garantir votre bande passante à vos visiteurs.

Praxis est le nom d’un projet de rock expérimental dirigé par le producteur et bassiste Bill Laswell et mettant en vedette le guitariste Buckethead et le batteur Bryan « Brain » Mantia dans presque toutes les incarnations du groupe.

Le groupe a travaillé avec de nombreux autres artistes tels que Serj Tankian de System of a Down, Iggy Pop, DXT et DJ Disk.

Praxis combine des éléments de différents genres musicaux tels que le funk, le jazz, le hip-hop et le heavy metal dans une musique hautement improvisée.

Le premier album du groupe, Transmutation (Mutatis Mutandis), sorti en 1992, a été bien accueilli par les critiques. Praxis était composé de Buckethead, du clavier Bernie Worrell, du batteur Brain, du bassiste Bootsy Collins et d’Afrika Baby Bam dans le rôle « AF Next Man Flip » sur les platines. Bill Laswell a dirigé le projet et a servi de producteur et de co-auteur d’une grande partie du matériel de l’album.

Voici The Interworld And The New Innocence, interprété par Buckethead:

Extrait du concert de Giant Robot du 29 mai 2004 à l’Independent de San Francisco, California.

Je vous ai déjà parlé du chmod et du chown de manière extensive mais aujourd’hui on va un tout petit peu plus loin.

La valeur du chmod telle qu’elle apparaît dans le terminal est un peu esotérique. Prenons par exemple le chmod d’un fichier standard de WordPress : -rw-r-----, cela demande une petite gymnastique intellectuelle pour réaliser quels sont les droits véritables.

Je vous propose donc une petite commande qui va vous simplifier la vie, de manière à vous donner la valeur numérique du chmod des fichiers et répertoires.

Il vous suffit d’utiliser la commande stat comme ceci, dans votre fenêtre de terminal:

stat -c '%a %U:%G %n' *

Notes:

  • -c permet de formater la sortie avec la template entre apostrophes
  • %a donne la valeur octale du chmod
  • %U donne le nom de l’utilisateur du chown
  • %G donne le groupe de l’utilisateur du chown
  • %n donne le nom du fichier

Et voilà simple et efficace!

Lots of critics have debated the tragic dimension of Death of a Salesman. Two levels have often been considered: the notion of genre, by referring to Aristotle’s Poetics, and the possibility of a new approach to tragedy, that would be concerned with the response of mankind to rapid technological advance.

The generic discussion (from genre) has often borne on an opposition between social drama dealing with the little man as victim of an oppressive, social and economic system, and tragedy in which the transcendental aspect is emphasized.

Miller himself has reflected on this issue in a seminal essay Tragedy and the Common Man (The New York Times, February 27, 1949). It is clear that Death of a Salesman raises the possibility of a modern tragic because unlike the absurdist theatre (Ionesco and Beckett), it postulates that ‘life has meaning’.

The question of the tragic in contradistinction to social drama will be treated along three axes.

Firstly, it can be argued that Death of a Salesman is more than social document that it creates a modern myth through a central symbol: salesmanship (Eugene O’Neill : The Iceman Cometh).

Secondly, we may wonder whether or not Loman is invested with a tragic dimension.

Thirdly, is Death of a Salesman a ruthless indictment of the American Society, along Marxist or, at least radical (in the American acceptation) lines, or does it go much beyond its social and historical context to bring about tragic catharsis in the audience?

Social testimony versus tragic myth?

The contemporary absence of tragedy

According to Miller, the absence of tragedy in contemporary American drama (1949) can be explained by the fact that man’s motivations are increasingly accounted for in purely psychiatric and sociological terms.

Literature tends to suggest that man’s miseries are born and bred within man’s mind: this is the psychological argument or, that society must be held responsible for man’s distress because of the deterministic laws that govern it – this is the point made by sociologists. In each case, the possibility of the tragic is denied because tragedy stems from an individual choice to assess, then to call into question and ultimately to rebel against the order of things.

“The thrust for freedom is equality in tragedy which exalts” (Tragedy and the Common Man, p.5)

If Willy Loman is simply considered as the poor, helpless victim of capitalist big business, then he is deprived of any tragic dimension. If he is merely a cog in the gigantic capitalist wheel that eventually crushes him to death, he is denied a tragic dimension. If he’s driven to madness, he has no tragic potential either.

A democratic tragedy

In our modern society, the agon (the contest, the struggle that is central to tragedy) can no longer be induced by a confrontation between the tragic hero and the Gods imposing their will on human mortals, as happened in Greek tragedy (Oedipus). The Gods have been replaced by the enslaving forces of modern society. Death of a Salesman is more subtle, sophisticated than the standard propaganda play of the 1930s, denouncing the evils of capitalism (The Adding Machines, Elmer Rice or the plays by Clifford Odets Awake and Sing).

The scene in which Loman is given the axe (p.59-66) is imbued with a certain ambiguity, a certain complexity, that make for tragic tension. It does not show a ruthless executive consciously firing the trusted employee, out of calculated mercenary motives.

The irony resides in the discrepancy between Howard Wagner and our preconceived representation of the capitalist businessman. Howard is the « nice guy », cornered into a situation that he is at a loss to handle nicely, which only makes the ugliness of it all even worse. There is no manichean opposition, it is more a case of a little man being fired by another little man (only a little higher up in the social scale).

In Howard’s presence, Willy is not simply confronted to the employer, but also to the doting father, who enthuses over his beloved children. Just speaking about his daughter, Howard exclaims « she’s crazy for me » (p.60) and of his son he says « five years old, Willy! » to point to his precocity and intelligence.

Both men (Willy and Howard) are not fundamentally different, at bottom, they just happen to find themselves into different social camps, at this point in time. Thus ambiguity gives tragic potential to the scene because « in tragedies and in them alone, lies the belief – optimistic, if you will – in the perfectibility of man » (Tragedy and the Common Man).

This is precisely the exact opposite to the Theatre of the Absurd, from which meaningfulness has been dismissed, and also very different from what happens in propaganda plays which set simplistic oppositions between the goodies and the villains.

Il peut être extrêmement utile d’activer la connexion SSH chez certains hébergeurs qui la proposent, comme SiteGround. Cela permet de gagner pas mal de temps, notamment lorsque l’on utilise wp-cli.

Mais avant de pouvoir se connecter, il faut d’abord l’activer dans les options de CPanel.

Activation de la connection SSH dans CPanel

Rendez-vous dans CPanel > Security > SSH Shell Access :

Ensuite, cliquez sur le bouton Manage SSH Keys:

Nous avons ensuite le choix entre deux solutions : soit nous créons la paire de clés privées/publiques sur le serveur et nous les copions sur notre machine locale, soit nous la créons en locale et l’envoyons sur le serveur. Je suis plutôt pour la seconde solution.

Création des clés SSH

On se rend dans le répertoire SSH de notre utilisateur et on liste le répertoire:

cd ~/.ssh
ls

Si le fichier id_rsa.pub existe déjà, il suffit d’afficher son contenu:

cat id_rsa.pub

Si le fichier n’existe pas, il suffit de le créer:

ssh-keygen

Copiez le contenu du fichier, il s’agit de la clé publique que nous allons importer dans CPanel.

Import de notre clé SSH dans CPanel

Cliquez sur Import Key:

Renommez la clé pour id_rsa puis collez le contenu de votre clé SSH publique:

Il ne vous reste plus qu’à vous connecter en SSH au serveur. Suivant votre hébergeur, le numéro du port SSH peut changer pour des raisons de sécurité. Chez SiteGround, SSH tourne sur le port 18765:

ssh CPANEL_USER@CPANEL_SERVER -p18765

Bon ssh !

Death of a Salesman: the play's structure, a memory play photo

If the external plot of Death of a Salesman may be divided into chronologically organised sequences: Act one (Monday evening and night); Act two (Tuesday), and the requiem a few days after (Willy’s burial), the same is not true of the internal plot: Willy’s stream of consciousness. In « the inside of Willy’s head », past and present are blurred. Memories constantly impinge on present situations and, conversely, the present is put at some distance by the flood of recollections.

The past/present dichotomy is replaced by a non-past; non-present, in which different temporal layers commingle and coalesce. This non-past/non-present is confined to Willy’s inner mind, to Willy’s subjective world.

‘A mobile concurrency of past and present’

(The expression is by Miller, from his introduction to his Collected Plays, p.26)

Miller’s aim in Death of a Salesman is to erase any gap between a remembered past – that would be evoked through words – and a present that would be performed on stage. In Death of a Salesman both past and present are given theatrical representation. There is no clear cut boundary between them. Thanks to the expressionistic technique of scrim and curtain, the characters may exist in both the present and the past. For example, Biff and Happy are seen as teenagers and adults successively.

There are no flashbacks in Death of a Salesman. Better than the erroneous term flashback, the phrase double exposure would be more appropriate. In Willy’s mind, past and present exist on the same level, Willy perceives himself both in the present and in the past – which is made up of various strata. In a way, Willy is schizophrenic; overwork, worry and repressed guilt have caused his mental collapse. In this state of nervous breakdown, past and present are inextricably mingled, time is, as it were, exploded.

In Death of a Salesman, Willy is both the self-remembering I, looking back upon himself, and the remembered I itself, that is to say the salesman as he used to be. Similarly, the same actors play their present and past selves, this is the case not only for Willy’s sons but also for Bernard, who has become a successful lawyer.

The dramatic unities, notably time, have been abolished in the most radical sense, indeed the function of memory entails a multiplicity of temporal levels, a series of different locations (Boston; New York but also the Prairie – through Willy’s father), and finally a loss of any fixed identity. In a sense, the exploded house, with its transparent walls, its scrims and curtains is an objective correlative (a concrete, practical, tangible image) for an exploding consciousness, in which spatial and temporal fragments get intertwined.

In the Great Gatsby, characters are not introduced in a traditional way. They are not described in any detail and cannot be studied separately. Thanks to his « ideographic » method of character-portrayal, Fitzgerald suggests one idea through an attitude, a gesture but does not provide a final explanation. It is up to the reader to reconstruct the pieces of the puzzle into a coherent whole.

The author’s technique is close to the Joycean « signature » when the character is broken down into its separate parts, and one or two of the parts are made to stand for the whole. Thus, Gatsby’s presence for example is signalled by his indescribable smile (54, III) or by his colourful suits, his hollow-eyed stare or Wolfshiem’s by his hairy nostrils. This is a stylized method of presentation, a virtual iconography of character whereby the soul of a being is shown forth through one exterior element.

This study will fall into parts: in the first one, we will see how characters are gradually characterized by the readers from a few signs and in the second one, we will demonstrate that characters must be understood through their relationships with objects.

A stylized technique of characterization

Ambiguous signs

Instead of the over-detailed description of 19th century novelists, we find in the case of each character a few signs that may be contradictory. It is often a material or a physical detail that points to a moral dimension of the character, as with Hawthorne and Melville.

Daisy’s voice is alluded to several times in the novel. It is because of this voice that Gatsby falls madly in love with Daisy: “I think that the voice held him most – that voice was a deathless song” (end of chapter V, p. 103). Yet, Nick realizes on the first he visits the Carraways that Daisy’s voice lacks sincerity, and that it gives away Daisy’s duplicity: “the instant her voice broke off… I felt the basic insincerity of what she has said” (p.24).

From these two contradictory signs, the magic power of the voice and and the insincerity of that same voice an interpretation is suggested. The meaning is finally made explicit by none other than Gatsby during the night of the accident. The latter, thinking back to his past, recalls his first date with the woman whom he was to love so much ever after. It so happened that Daisy had caught a cold so that her voice was huskier (VIII, 155). At that point in time Gatsby realized that the charm and youth of that voice was very much a matter of wealth. Daisy’s melodious voice was not so much due to genuine passion as to the glamour of money (VIII, 126).

From an opposition between two signs the reader is left to infer meaning. For instance, Wilson the garage-owner is first seen as a passive, ghastly silhouette “a blond, spiritless man, anaemic, and faintly handsome” (II, 31), but this lack of presence is contradicted by the end (chapter VII, VIII) when he turns out to be a destructive force bent on taking vengeance on his wife’s killer. Our first impression of the man is therefore not borne out by the story’s denouement.

in the day my darlin
i was here before
i was stealin starlins
i was sleepin on the shore
on the shore

in the day you’re turning
we were hidden for
we made picture books and
we made fixtures on the floor
on the floor
on the floor
on the floor
but you were gone

A retrouver sur l’album The Crow Mother, paru le 25 septembre 2012.

The term quest immediately calls up the fairy tale motif or the German Märchen (Tieck; Grimm). The quest has been studied by Propp in Morphology of the Folktale.

In a tale, the hero attempts to escape from his humble origins to claim a higher ascendency or a royal lineage. James Gatz from North Dakota had never really accepted his parents who were shiftless and unsuccessful farm people : « his imagination had never really accepted them as his parents at all ». James Gatz denies his social as well as biological parentage to aspire to a more glittering and glamorous future. He therefore creates an exalted image of himself : he yearns to become a demi-god (« he was a son of God »). So James Gatz’s quest consists in proving to the world and possibly to himself that he is mighty and powerful. Now this may only be achieved through personal enrichment.

The quest pattern is also closely bound up with the romantic desire to transcend the limitations of the Self. The aim of such a quest is therefore to assert the primacy of the imagination over reason in a materialistic and philistine world. Fitzgerald often recalled his great admiration for the poet Keats and he went as far as to claim that he intended to « write prose on the same lines as Keats’ poetry » (Sheilah Graham, College of One, Harmondsworth, 1969). So even if the novel’s action is steeped in the hedonistic, pleasure-seeking America of the Jazz Age, it is nonetheless imbued with Romantic idealism. In a way, The Great Gatsby may be interpreted as a downright rejection of everything that is earthbound, mundane and devoid of spiritual lift.

« Real time » versus timeless ideality

Time is the real enemy in the Romantic World. Keats, whose influence should never be underestimated, is constantly striving to attain a transitory moment of vision which will defeat time, even if he never loses sight of the chronological succession of events altogether.

Gatsby’s self-creation and transcendentalism

James Gatz refuses the constraints and limitations of his social milieu. He spurns the historical determinism that results from being born in a rather destitute family. By turning down his tie with his biological father, Jay Gatz lays claim to an existence outside history, that is outside time. His first romantic aspiration is to prove he is not in any way bound by the fetters/shackles of time.

In fact, James Gatz will be who he chooses to be, he will be his self-creation, a byronic Romantic rebel who hates anything that excludes the imagination. The emphasis on the power of the imagination probably owes something to the transcendentalists (Ralph Waldo Emerson and David Henri Thoreau). The latter rejected Calvinism and the materialism of society. Emerson and Thoreau asserted their beliefs in the possibility of spiritual communion with nature. They also insisted on each individual’s capacity to fulfil his own potential by relying on the force of his intuition. Transcendentalism praised self-reliance, that is to say a liberation from habits, conformism and traditions in order to create one’s true self.

Rapport de faute d’orthographe

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