West to the Pacific

A westward expansion Expansion is both commercial and territorial. American expansion was always as sort of global attitude involving territorial growth and commercial expansion, exactly like a body that grows. America has always been perceived as a body. The growth is so huge that nobody can do anything about it: unlimited development, though only extending to the West. In 1800, the Western Boundary/Border was the Mississippi River. Beyond it, standed great areas of land, not very known: 600 miles to […]

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Birth of a Nation

Introduction After France's defeat in Canada, Britain remained the only power left in Eastern North America. The colonies were now free to spread over the vast continent and increase their wealth. Therefore, for the British Government, it was natural that the colonists, whose prosperity was increasing, should contribute to British economy. The financial measures affecting trade and the arbitrary taxes decided in London soon became intolerable to the colonists. They have now the opportunity and the financial means of standing […]

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The Glorious Revolution of 1688

Introduction Civic liberties and parliamentary institutions represent one of the major cultural legacies: England left to the civilization of the world. The first document protecting individual liberty and the prototype of modern Parliament appeared in England as early as the 13th century. But effective protection against arbitrary power and the first parliamentary regime emerged much later in the 17th. However the modern notion of democracy, which implies full political citizenship for everyone (no one deprived of the right to vote) […]

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The Affluent Society : poverty rediscovered ?

Post-war Britain is characterised by Butskellism, a hybrid word formed from part of the names of the Conservative (Butler) and Labour (Gaitskell) Chancellors of the Exchequer. This socio-economic policy was a compromise between private and public responsibility for the individual and was seen to describe a consensus between right and left which was to last until 1975 (for the Conservatives) and 1979 (for the Labour Party). The 50s and 60s were years of the acceptance by both sides in British […]

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