Introduction to Puritanism and Expansionism

A few notions... Puritanism is a radical version of Protestantism, which is rooted in the movement called the Reformation (16th century). American Puritanism and English Puritanism are fairly different. American Puritanism became the ultimate, most coherent of Protestantism because it grew in a virgin soil. It is an experiment in America with European roots. The most famous characters are Luther and Calvin, who both had a great influence first in Europe and then in America. The most radical movement was […]

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A transformed vision of time in Regeneration

Introduction Space, setting, the interaction between landscape and mindscape and the curious similarities between outdoors places in Scotland and the landscape of the Flanders correspond to the writer's intention of similarity: the characters are so obsessed by the war that they see it in Scotland. This obsession ultimately transforms their vision of time. I. The present is the past Indeed, the characters have no present. It applies to all traumatized soldiers: conscious: remembering. unconscious: hallucination For instance, Sassoon had hallucinations […]

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Landscape and mindscape in Regeneration

Study of a passage p.37-38: "he got off at the next stop [...] whine of shells". This passage is not a dialogue. The narrator is telling us about Burns. Presence of realistic elements: stress on concrete details ("a tuft of grey wool"). Use of chronological order + realistic framework. Everything is seen through Burns's subjectivity: he is the central focalizer and we move from an objective description of landscape to a subjective mindscape. I - Presence of subjectivity A - […]

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Historical figures and fictional characters in Regeneration

How human beings presented in Regeneration are different from historical characters ? Paradoxically, several characters had real historical existence and yet, there is no difference between those who really existed and those invented: it seems that they are on the same level. The major difference lays in characterization, i.e. the ways in which human beings are constructed in characters. In history books, the stress is usually on public life whereas in fictions the stress is on subjectivity. Regeneration is a […]

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First dialogue between Rivers and Sassoon in Regeneration

Study of the passage p11-12: from "What kind of questions did they ask.." to "with quite a bit of his leg left inside". This is the first real dialogue between Rivers and Sassoon. Sassoon is presented as shell-shocked. This passage is composed of a dialogue and 12 lines of narrative. Most of the narrative comments describe Sassoon's behaviour. I. Dialogue and verisimilitude Dialogue enhances verisimilitude. Rivers is a psychiatrist and Sassoon is the patient. It is a normal professional situation. […]

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The plot in Regeneration by Pat Barker

Is Regeneration a novel with a plot ? It is not as obvious as in a detective story. I. Sassoon's transformation Must be seen in the changes that occurred between the beginning and the end of the novel. At the beginning, Sassoon has just protested against fighting the war. At the end, something has changed: "no, I want to go back" (p.213). He has stopped his protest and has made the decision to go back to the front.He hesitates between […]

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The setting in Regeneration by Pat Barker

An hostile nature Use of an adjective of color (yellow) The sun and the light are described as yellow, which is a warm color not normally applied to natural light. p.175, l.2: "fading to yellow".Yellow not presented as a bright color, paradox. p.128: "yellowing of the light", "sulfurous".Attribute of Lucifer, negative connotation. p.199: "like an artificial sunset".The natural light of the sun has gone.Yellow is linked to the war. Yellow is associated with light, with Sarah's skin (because of the […]

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English Literature

Narratives The Short-Story and the Novel Relatives in Cider With Rosie by Laurie Lee Lord Jim by Joseph Conrad Lord Jim by Joseph Conrad : "A free and wandering tale" Lord Jim : How is Conrad's first-hand experience of seamanship perceptible throughout the Patna episode ? Macbeth by Shakespeare Introduction to Macbeth Political questions in Macbeth The dramatic quality in Macbeth A Midsummer Night's Dream by Shakespeare Introduction to A Midsummer Night's Dream Background of A Midsummer Night's Dream Structure […]

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Introduction to Regeneration by Pat Barker

Introduction to Regeneration by Pat Barker photo

Regeneration has to do with World War One (WW1) and it is visible right from its cover. The novelist, Pat Barker is one of the first women writers who have written about the Great War. Pat Barker is a university-trained historian and this is confirmed by the presence of very reliable sources in the "Author's Notes", at the end of the novel. Regeneration is a historical novel on the surface but is really more than that. I. Historical accuracy Several […]

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