ACTA, un accord négocié à notre insu : la fin de nos libertés sur Internet?

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Qu'est-ce qu'ACTA? ACTA est une offensive de plus contre le partage de la culture sur Internet. ACTA est l'Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ou accord commercial anti-contrefaçon), un accord négocié secrètement entre 2007 et 2010, dans l'ombre et en gardant le public dans l'ignorance plutôt que débattu démocratiquement. Jusqu'à 2010, toutes les informations relatives à ACTA ont été des fuites qui révélaient le secret intentionnel pour dérouter le public. ACTA contourne les parlements et les organisations internationales pour imposer une logique répressive […]

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The Glorious Revolution of 1688

Introduction Civic liberties and parliamentary institutions represent one of the major cultural legacies: England left to the civilization of the world. The first document protecting individual liberty and the prototype of modern Parliament appeared in England as early as the 13th century. But effective protection against arbitrary power and the first parliamentary regime emerged much later in the 17th. However the modern notion of democracy, which implies full political citizenship for everyone (no one deprived of the right to vote) […]

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Electoral inequalities : the Road to Male Suffrage

Before 1832, the electoral system in Great Britain was confused : there were County seats, Borough seats, "scot and lot" seats (where any adult male who paid local poor rates could vote), "potwalloper" seats (where every resident male of at least 6 months standing who was not a pauper could vote) and of course "rotten boroughs". Eventually, after a long struggle (cf The Peterloo Massacre in 1819), the First Reform Act was passed by a Whig Government in 1832, which […]

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Definitions : the State, the Nation, Home Rule and Devolution

The State and the Nation For Benedict Anderson, Nations are "imagined communities": it means that there is a will of the people to do things together and this group of people is so large that people cannot know every member: hence, they imagine the other members like them, sharing the same value. The State is an independent polity, a political unit with a fully independent legislature. Scotland is not a State but she is a Nation. Until 1999, Scotland was […]

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The Scottish Parliament

Introduction On May 1st 1997, a general election took place in the UK. It was won by the Labour Party after 18 years of Conservative Government (1979-1997).The political programme of the Labour party included a vast number of constitutional reforms and manifestos: devolution (power to the regions) to Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland and English regions (wide range). reform of the House of Lords. incorporation of the European Convention on Human Rights into British law. The Labour Government was for devolution […]

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The Act of Union of 1707

Introduction Scotland was never conquered by England. There were attempts but they failed. At the end of the 13th century, the wars of independence began. In May 1st 1707, the Act of Union was ratified between England and Scotland: the Scottish Parliament and the English Parliament were suspended. They created the British Parliament and formed the Great Britain by the Union of Scotland and England. At the time, Scotland was already a protestant country (the Reformation came in the 16th […]

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