Lord Jim : How is Conrad's first-hand experience of seamanship perceptible throughout the Patna episode ?

Conrad was a sailor and gave us a flavour of seamanship: read ch1-20, there are segments which should not be missed. In Youth (1828), Conrad wrote a fiction based on his first-hand experience as first mate on board a ship called the "Palestine". He was directly involved in an incident: the Palestine caught fire and the team, including Conrad, were obliged to abandon the ship. A trial took place and the team was cleared because they had done everything they […]

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Lord Jim by Joseph Conrad : "A free and wandering tale"

Introduction "A free and wandering tale" about "the acute consciousness of lost honour". Lord Jim is not a simple book that could be called novel: this is too reductive. From a technical point of view it is an idealistic image, a Jamesonian novel. Conrad tries to innovate by rejecting Victorian methods of writing and patterns. In an essay called "The New Novel" (1914), Henry James tries to analyze Conrad's complexity : "Conrad's first care is explicitly to set up a […]

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Relatives in "Cider With Rosie" by Laurie Lee

Cider with Rosie by Laurie Lee : chapter analysis photo

Introduction Laurie Lee belongs to a large family, due to his father's two marriages. The first time, his father got 8 kids but only 5 survived: Marjorie, Dorothy, Phyllis, Reggie and Harold. The second time, with Laurie's mother, he got 4 kids and just 3 survived: Laurie, Tony and Jack. There are 8 members in the family and Laurie is one of the youngest. I. The 3 half-sisters Marjorie: is the eldest. She's a blonde Aphrodite. She's tall, long-haired, and […]

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The Short-Story and the Novel

Introduction The Short Story appeared in the 19th century, inherited from tales and narratives. As Edgar Allan Poe stated it, a Short Story must have a "unity of impression, of totality and of single effect". It could be compared to poetry: consciousness, inner life and the end of the story subjected to many interpretations lead to a sudden illumination from the part of the reader: at a certain point, this latter understands everything. The Novel is based on a principle […]

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Edgar Poe : une Descente dans le Mäelstrom

I. Le cadre L'action se situe au sommet d'une montagne, le Helseggen, sur la côte de Norvège dans la province de Nortland. Le panorama est effroyablement désolé: les falaises surplombantes dramatiquement noires, l'océan extraordinairement hurlant et mugissant, la tempête déchaînée. Dans la mer se forme un grand tourbillon, le Maëlstrom, véritable gouffre: " Le bord est marqué d'une écume lumineuse mais pas une parcelle ne glisse dans la gueule du terrible entonnoir à la prodigieuse puissance de succion. " II. […]

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Edgar Poe : Metzengerstein

I. Le cadre Une époque lointaine, moyenâgeuse (présence de châteaux) dans une région centrale de la Hongrie aux moeurs si étranges que l'on croit à la métempsycose. (transmigration des âmes d'un corps dans un autre). Tous ces éléments accentuent le dépaysement et donnent au lecteur le sentiment étrange qu'il est dans un autre monde où tout est possible. II. Les personnages Le Comte Berlifitzing: est à peine évoqué, ce n'est qu'un" vieux radoteur infirme qui n'avait rien de remarquable si […]

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Biographie d'Edgar Allan Poe

Enfance 1806 Mariage le 14 Mars de David Poe Jr et de Mrs Eliza Hopkins. Tous les deux sont acteurs dans la même troupe et connaissent des difficultés matérielles de toutes sortes. 1809 Naissance d'Edgar Poe à Boston le 19 Janvier. David Poe disparaît. 1811 Mrs Poe joue à Richmond où elle meurt le 8 décembre de tuberculose pulmonaire à l'âge de 24 ans. Edgar Poe est recueilli par les Allan et s'appellera Edgar Allan Poe. John Allan est un […]

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Edgar Allan Poe : introduction

Auteur américain de la première moitié du 19ème siècle, très prolifique puisqu'il a écrit plus d'une soixantaine de nouvelles et de poèmes, Edgar Allan Poe s'affirme en tant qu'écrivain de grande renommée, reconnu prestigieux en France grâce au poète Charles Baudelaire qui, en traduisant ses oeuvres, leur a conféré une beauté et une pureté exceptionnelles. Malmené dès l'enfance par la vie, assoiffé de tendresse, malchanceux en amour, hanté par ses phantasmes et ses démons intérieurs, névrosé au plus haut point, […]

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Electre : tragédie et originalité du drame giralducien

Electre : tragédie et originalité du drame giralducien photo

Mythe de la vérité, la tragédie d'Electre est le récit d'une vengeance qui s'accomplit à ce titre. Le conflit qui structure la pièce lui donne unité et profondeur. Mais quelles sont les origines et les règles de la tragédie grecque? Quel mythe est à l'origine du drame d'Electre ? Quelle est l'originalité de Giraudoux par rapport aux célèbres dramaturges que furent Eschyle, Sophocle ou Euripide? I. Naissance de la tragédie A. Origines religieuses du théâtre La tragédie est née à […]

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Extended introduction to "Death of a Salesman"

Introduction: the structure of the play In Miller's mind, Death of a Salesman was not an abstract concept but the concrete image of an enormous head that would be on stage, opening up the play, so that spectators would be able to see inside. It was a very ambitious idea and the original title was The Inside of his Head. In Death of a Salesman, the spectator is plunged into the main character's head. There is no linear onward progression […]

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The ordering of events in "The Great Gatsby"

Structure and Narration in "The Great Gatsby" photo

Introduction In The Great Gatsby Fitzgerald condensed the story's events. It appears that two important changes were introduced: Fitzgerald suppressed a long episode of Gatsby's childhood in order to heighten the sense of mystery surrounding his protagonist's youth. This fragment was then turned into a short story Absolution that was published in a review Mercury. The second important change concerned the order of the events and the fact that in the original version it was Gatsby who spoke. In the […]

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Structure and Narration in "The Great Gatsby"

Structure and Narration in "The Great Gatsby" photo

The Great Gatsby is the third novel of Fitzgerald, published in 1925 after This Side of Paradise (1920) and The Beautiful and the Damned (1922). Introduction It is a turning point in Fitzgerald literary career because it was to improve on his previous works: he tested new techniques and insisted on the novelty of his enterprise: 'I want to write something new, something extraordinary and beautiful and simple and 'intricately patterned' (letter to Perkins, agent at Scribners). Indeed, Fitzgerald devoted […]

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