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Comment choisir vos deux questions ?

Pour votre épreuve du grand oral, vous devez en effet choisir et préparer deux questions portant sur les programmes de vos spécialités. Vous pouvez par exemple prendre une question pour chaque spécialité, ou bien choisir des questions qui couvrent les deux disciplines.

Quelques conseils pour choisir une question pertinente :

  • Prenez un sujet qui vous intéresse, sur lequel vous avez envie de réfléchir, de faire des recherches pour le grand oral. Par exemple, un thème que vous aurez envie d’approfondir tout au long de l’année.
  • Choisissez un sujet riche mais qui sera simple à problématiser, c’est-à-dire une thématique sur laquelle vous pourrez facilement trouver des documents, des supports pour vos recherches mais qui implique une problématique claire et pas trop large.
  • Enfin, prenez une question en cohérence avec votre projet d’études.

Remarque : n’oubliez pas que vos questions pour le grand oral devront être validées par vos professeurs, alors n’hésitez pas à leur demander conseil en cas de doute.

L’épreuve du Grand Oral

► La préparation (20 min)

Le jury choisit une des deux questions que vous avez préparées.

Les 20 minutes de préparation avant l’oral vous permettent de vous concentrer sur le sujet choisi. Au brouillon (que vous ne conserverez pas pendant l’oral) ou oralement si les conditions le permettent :

  • récitez les premières phrases de votre exposé, pour vous rassurer ;
  • restituez aussi votre plan ;
  • préparez éventuellement la production graphique que vous voulez présenter, sur le support fourni par le jury.

► La présentation (5 min)

  • Au début de la présentation, expliquez pourquoi vous avez choisi de préparer cette question, puis présentez votre exposé.
  • L’exposé se fait sans notes et en position debout.
  • Surveillez l’heure : ne dépassez pas 5 minutes !

► L’entretien sur votre présentation (10 min)

  • Le jury vous interroge ensuite sur votre présentation pour vous amener à préciser et à approfondir votre pensée, et vous posera des questions sur votre présentation.
  • Il pourra élargir les questions à tout le programme du cycle terminal de ses enseignements de spécialité.

Ce temps d’échange permet surtout de mettre en valeur vos connaissances liées au programme des spécialités suivies en première et en terminale, et vos capacités argumentatives.

► L’échange sur votre projet d’orientation (5 min)

  • Vous devrez montrer en quoi la question traitée éclaire votre projet de poursuite d’études, ou votre projet professionnel.
  • Insistez sur les étapes de la maturation de votre projet (rencontres, engagements, stages, mobilité internationale, intérêt pour les enseignements communs, choix de ses spécialités, etc.) et la manière dont vous souhaitez le mener après le baccalauréat.

Le serveur héberge plusieurs sites et l’un d’entre eux, Utopique, retournait l’erreur curl: (92) HTTP/2 stream 0 was not closed cleanly: PROTOCOL_ERROR (err 1) lorsqu’on le visitait avec Chrome mais fonctionnait sans souci avec Firefox.

Le plus drôle dans l’histoire (enfin drôle, j’ai passé deux jours à éplucher mes server blocks, les logs et la configuration SSL), c’est que ce site utilise le même modèle de server blocks que les autres. Je soupçonnais principalement la configuration NginX alors qu’en fait, elle n’y était pour rien!

Le problème se situe en fait au niveau de Cloudflare, et apparaît notamment avec le réglage suivant: Caching > Configuration > Browser Cache TTL > Respect Existing Headers.

Pour résoudre le problème, il faut choisir un autre réglage que “Respect Existing Headers”.

On creuse un peu à l’aide de curl pour comprendre ce qu’il se passe:

curl -vvv -I https://utopique.net --http2

Voici le résultat de la commande:

 Trying 2606:4700:3036::ac43:dc02:443…
 TCP_NODELAY set
 Connected to utopique.net (2606:4700:3036::ac43:dc02) port 443 (#0)
 ALPN, offering h2
 ALPN, offering http/1.1
 successfully set certificate verify locations:
 CAfile: /etc/ssl/certs/ca-certificates.crt
 CApath: /etc/ssl/certs
 TLSv1.3 (OUT), TLS handshake, Client hello (1):
 TLSv1.3 (IN), TLS handshake, Server hello (2):
 TLSv1.3 (IN), TLS handshake, Encrypted Extensions (8):
 TLSv1.3 (IN), TLS handshake, Certificate (11):
 TLSv1.3 (IN), TLS handshake, CERT verify (15):
 TLSv1.3 (IN), TLS handshake, Finished (20):
 TLSv1.3 (OUT), TLS change cipher, Change cipher spec (1):
 TLSv1.3 (OUT), TLS handshake, Finished (20):
 SSL connection using TLSv1.3 / TLS_AES_256_GCM_SHA384
 ALPN, server accepted to use h2
 Server certificate:
 subject: C=US; ST=CA; L=San Francisco; O=Cloudflare, Inc.; CN=sni.cloudflaressl.com
 start date: Jul 10 00:00:00 2020 GMT
 expire date: Jul 10 12:00:00 2021 GMT
 subjectAltName: host "utopique.net" matched cert's "utopique.net"
 issuer: C=US; O=Cloudflare, Inc.; CN=Cloudflare Inc ECC CA-3
 SSL certificate verify ok.
 Using HTTP2, server supports multi-use
 Connection state changed (HTTP/2 confirmed)
 Copying HTTP/2 data in stream buffer to connection buffer after upgrade: len=0
 Using Stream ID: 1 (easy handle 0x564540aecc80) 
   HEAD / HTTP/2
   Host: utopique.net
   user-agent: curl/7.68.0
   accept: /
      TLSv1.3 (IN), TLS handshake, Newsession Ticket (4):
   TLSv1.3 (IN), TLS handshake, Newsession Ticket (4):
   old SSL session ID is stale, removing
   Connection state changed (MAX_CONCURRENT_STREAMS == 256)!
   http2 error: Invalid HTTP header field was received: frame type: 1, stream: 1, name: [access-control-allow-headers "origin, x-requested-with, content-type, accept"], value: []
   HTTP/2 stream 0 was not closed cleanly: PROTOCOL_ERROR (err 1)
   stopped the pause stream!
   Connection #0 to host utopique.net left intact
   curl: (92) HTTP/2 stream 0 was not closed cleanly: PROTOCOL_ERROR (err 1)    

A group of people is coming towards us. They’re tourists, from Japan it looks like, a trade delegation perhaps, on a tour of the historic landmarks or out for local colour. They’re diminutive and neatly turned out; each has his or her camera, his or her smile. They look around, bright-eyed, cocking their heads to one side like robins, their very cheerfulness aggressive, and I can’t help staring. It’s been a long time since I’ve seen skirts that short on women. The skirts reach just below the knee and the legs come out from beneath them, nearly naked in their thin stockings, blatant, the high-heeled shoes with their straps attached to the feet like delicate instruments of torture. The women teeter on their spiked feet as if on stilts, but off balance; their backs arch at the waist, thrusting the buttocks out. Their heads are uncovered and their hair too is exposed, in all its darkness and sexuality. They wear lipstick, red, outlining the damp cavities of their mouths, like scrawls on a washroom wall, of the time before.

I stop walking. Ofglen stops beside me and I know that she too cannot take her eyes off these women. We are fascinated, but also repelled. They seem undressed. It has taken so little time to change our minds, about things like this.

Then I think: I used to dress like that. That was freedom.

Westernized, they used to call it.

The Japanese tourists come towards us, twittering, and we turn our heads away too late: our faces have been seen.

There’s an interpreter, in the standard blue suit and red-patterned tie, with the winged-eye tie pin. He’s the one who steps forward, out of the group, in front of us, blocking our way. The tourists bunch behind him; one of them raises a camera.

“Excuse me,” he says to both of us, politely enough. “They’re asking if they can take your picture.”

I look down at the sidewalk, shake my head for No. What they must see is the white wings only, a scrap of face, my chin and part of my mouth. Not the eyes. I know better than to look the interpreter in the face. Most of the interpreters are Eyes, or so it’s said.

I also know better than to say Yes. Modesty is invisibility, said Aunt Lydia. Never forget it. To be seen – to be seen – is to be – her voice trembled – penetrated. What you must be, girls, is impenetrable. She called us girls.

Beside me, Ofglen is also silent. She’s tucked her red-gloved hands up into her sleeves, to hide them.

The interpreter turns back to the group, chatters at them in staccato. I know what he’ll be saying, I know the line. He’ll be telling them that the women here have different customs, that to stare at them through the lens of a camera is, for them, an experience of violation.

I’m looking down, at the sidewalk, mesmerized by the women’s feet. One of them is wearing open-toed sandals, the toenails painted pink. I remember the smell of nail polish, the way it wrinkled if you put the second coat on too soon, the satiny brushing of sheer pantyhose against the skin, the way the toes felt, pushed towards the opening in the shoe by the whole weight of the body. The woman with painted toes shifts from one foot to the other. I can feel her shoes, on my own feet. The smell of nail polish has made me hungry.

“Excuse me,” says the interpreter again, to catch our attention. I nod, to show I’ve heard him.

“He asks, are you happy,” says the interpreter. I can imagine it, their curiosity: Are they happy? How can they be happy? I can feel their bright black eyes on us, the way they lean a little forward to catch our answers, the women especially, but the men too: we are secret, forbidden, we excite them.

Ofglen says nothing. There is a silence. But sometimes it’s as dangerous not to speak.

“Yes, we are very happy,” I murmur. I have to say something. What else can I say?

The Handmaid’s Tale, chapter 5.

Introduction

“Gilead is within you” – Offred has absorbed Gilead’s values, yet the assimilation is not complete. She is off-balanced and torn between two sets of values. It is freedom she chooses although she is very reasonable.

The narrator invites the reader to follow her gradual evolution from external focalizer to internal focalizer: she describes but knows the system and therefore is able to criticize it.

The dramatic confrontation of two opposite worlds

Distinct versus indistinct

The focalization is external: she has swallowed the whole of Gilead’s values and viewpoints. As a consequence:

  • tourists are regarded as aliens
  • she has become a stranger to the Japanese tourists
  • there is an opposition between Gilead and the western world

The Japanese tourists are distinct:

  • they have a voice of their own, as well as an interpreter
  • they are allowed to live their own existence

Conversely, Handmaids are indistinct, all similar: “she called us girls”. They are not allowed to have a face and are reduced to symbols and images, there are not human beings any longer. They are also denied a voice: “I nod”, “murmur”.